I tried open previously created VeraCrypt volume (using VC v1.23 x64) and this is what I get:
I’m sure HDDis fine. I did check hardware and filesystem side. Also, I did put VC volume on different disk, and flash drive. Mounting attempt from Whonix with same result as above. Also, I can mount this volume from Windows or Ubuntu from same locations without problem. I tried Whonix v126.96.36.199.8, v188.8.131.52.9, v184.108.40.206.6 and 220.127.116.11.4 and failed every time (using v1.23 x64). I did managed to find Whonix v18.104.22.168.4, set it up, install VC (v1.23 x86) and open volume without problem.
It looks like it’s some Whonix v14 issue. All Whonix VM’s running from VirtualBox.