In the first paragraph you write that wired USB ethernet is used but later on you say you bridge the USB wifi adapter to the VM ??
Anyways, the network configuration is hard coded under /etc/network/interfaces.d/30_non-qubes-whonix. You should configure a static address there corresponding to your local network config.
You could also just attach the USB ethernet adapter to the VM in the VirtualBox config.
When you attach the USB to the VM there should be nothing to change on the host network. I can’t test it atm, but when you attach the USB you should get a new network interface. So first remove the first network interface of the VM, then connect the USB adapter and boot it. You should have two interfaces in the VM then with eth0 hopefully being the USB adapter. Then change the static address for eth0 in /etc/network/interfaces.d/30_non-qubes-whonix as well as the gateway.
It looks like you attached the wifi adapter to the VM and not the USB ethernet adapter. Also the first interface is still enabled. Unless there is a driver issue the wifi adapter should still come up in the VM, but since you don’t want to use wifi in the VM anyways …
I just gave it a try on a linux host and the USB interface comes up as eth1 which makes things more complicated …
If you want to use the bridge and it works for other VMs then in theory you just need to change the network address. I don’t know your local network config so easiest is to either check on the host or maybe better on the Windows VM where the bridge works, for the network address. If it is something like 192.168.1.44 in Windows, then for example make the Whonix config look like:
iface eth0 inet static