Will add to:
All UDP traffic can be fingerprinted and linked to the same kernel/machine for its runtime duration. The key is reset on restart.
This does into apply to TCP traffic and therefore stuff over Tor.
The net namespace of the kernel context is included in the hash calculation that is used the IP ID field of UDP packets. Since 4.1 CONFIG_NET_NS. Works in the wild. Applies.to Android.
Mitigations need changes to the kernel code itself. Yet
“From IP ID to Device ID and KASLR Bypass (Extended Version)”